India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It ranks as the seventh largest country by area, the second most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. And land borders are shared with Pakistan to the west;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, it is located in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. And the Andaman and Nicobar Islandsof India share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. The capital is New Delhi, but other metropolises include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinentwas identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism originated in a India, whereas Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE , and they also played a part in shaping the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdomafter the Indian Rebellion of 1857, it became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.

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